Vilcabamba and the Archaeology of Inca Resistance


Series: Monographs 81
ISBN: 978-1-938770-03-6
Publication Date: Aug 2015
Price: Pb $55, eBook $25
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Brian S. Bauer, Javier Fonseca Santa Cruz, and Miriam Aráoz Silva

"The authors’ new survey and excavation work stands on its own, but it also makes an invaluable contribution to the growing literature on indigenous life in the early colonial Andes. From a historiographic perspective, Bauer and colleagues provide a complete overview of the essential early colonial sources as well as descriptions of twentieth- century expeditions in the region."
  — R. Alan Covey, Hispanic American Historical Review, 2016

The sites of Vitcos and Espíritu Pampa are two of the most important Inca cities within the remote Vilcabamba region of Peru. The province has gained notoriety among historians, archaeologists and other students of the Inca, since it was from here that the last independent Incas waged a nearly forty year-long war (AD 1536–1572) against Spanish control of the Andes. Building on three years of excavation and two years of archival work, the authors discuss the events that took place in this area, speaking to the complex relationships that existed between the Europeans and Andeans during the decades that Vilcabamba was the final stronghold of the Inca empire. 

Reconstructed vessel from Espíritu Pampa

This has long been a topic of interest for the public; the results of the first large scale, scientific research conducted in the region will be illuminating for scholars as well as for general readers who are enthusiasts of this period of history and archaeology.

Table of Contents


  • Ch. 1: An introduction to Vilcabamba by Brian S. Bauer
  • Ch. 2: Settlement Patterns and Excavations in the Vitcos Region by Brian S. Bauer and Miriam Aráoz Silva
  • Ch. 3: The Yurak Rumi Shrine Complex by Brian S. Bauer and Miriam Aráoz Silva
  • Ch. 4: introduction to the Site of Espíritu Pampa by Brian S. Bauer
  • Ch. 5: Excavations at Tendi Pampa (Espíritu Pampa) in 2008 and 2009 by Javier Fonseca Santa Cruz and Brian S. Bauer
  • Ch. 6: Other Excavations at Espíritu Pampa in 2008 and 2009 by Javier Fonseca Santa Cruz and Brian S. Bauer
  • Ch. 7: Excavations Conducted at Espíritu Pampa in 2010 by Brian S. Bauer and Miriam Aráoz Silva
  • Appendix 1:  The Results of Radiocarbon Tests Run on Charcoal Recovered in Inca Buildings at the Site of Espíritu Pampa